December 1st 2015 Posted at Information Theory
Comments Off on Margarine Technology ? Plastic Theory
Two or more oils are blended together from dozens of common oils and modern edible oils are formulated. The physical characteristics of high level of fats for shortening, margarine and spread are specially made from these oils.
Originally, these oil products are solid in appearance, but when they are subjected to a cut off force, it causes a permanent deformation and they all transformed into a viscous liquid.
These solids are passed on as synthetic solids. Their plastic temperament enables them to stretch eagerly and mix thoroughly with other liquids or solids without breaking, cracking or untying from these crystalline fats.
Typically, these solids are comparatively soft at normal temperature and in fact contain not more than 5% solid fat. Supposing that the fat crystals are homogenous balls jam-packed closely in a cubical pattern, then the imaginary solid substance is greatest at more than 52%, which is prepared by cautiously cooling, plasticizing and agitating of edible oils that are accurately blended.
Conditions of plasticity
Solids from plastics obtain their performance ability due to their exclusive plastic nature. For plasticity three stipulations are necessary:
· Both solid and liquid phases must be there.
· The solid stage must be thoroughly scattered in such a way that complete solid and liquid medium can be efficiently bound together by interior consistent force.
· There should be proper scope between the phases. An inaccurate phase ratio adversely changes the products rheology. For instance, deficiency in solids might cause oil separation, whereas extreme solids can lead to brittleness or hardness instead of the preferred viscous flow.
Power of crystal size
Crystal size plays an important part in the rheological (the way matter flows and changes shapes) properties of synthetic solids and so is measured, as a critical factor and calculated carefully during their formulation. Fats are present in a three dimensional solid-liquid medium, where the liquid oil should be controlled.
When cooled and melted, without motion the fats at all times form large crystals. Here the crystals are less and the whole surface area is inadequate to connect the liquid phase inside the crystalline medium and oil separation takes place. Products become more solid as crystal size decreases.
The same fat is quickly chilled, which creates many more and very small crystals with a wide combined surface area. A quickly cooled margarine formula will be more firm, stable with a great plastic collection than a slowly or statically cooled fat.
Commercial fats harden in a number of crystalline polymorphic forms. The two desirable constant forms are commonly represented by Greek letters beta-prime –b0 and beta – b.
When a hard fat crystallizes at high melting point in a steady b0 form, the whole fat will take the shape in this similar b0 pattern. Plastic shortenings in a polymorphic form are made of small, homogenous needle-shaped crystals and display a smooth texture, have exclusive creaming properties, aerate well and make good icing shortenings and cakes.
Cottonseed oils and Palm oils are partially hydrogenated and often included in margarine and shortening formation to increase b0 crystallization that has these qualities. Fats that shape up in b polymorphic form have large granular crystals with poor aerators, but forms very flaky texture in the pie crust.
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