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Category : Information Theory

How Einstein Received the Theory of Relativity

Einstein was one of the most creative geniuses of the past century. He said, “I want to know God’s thoughts, the rest are details.” And know God’s thoughts he did. The theory of relativity, E = MC2, gave birth to quantum physics and altered forever how scientists look at energy and matter and time and space.

What was Einstein’s secret?

How did Einstein get this brilliant creative insight into the realm of physics? He tells that he was lying on his back in a grassy field, looking through half-closed eyes and wondering what it would be like to ride on a ray of sunlight. Intuitively, the theory of relativity came to him. He went back to his office and proved it with mathematical formulas.

Now consider the priciples we find in Habakkuk 2:1-2 and Revelation 1:9-10 for how the prophets Habakkuk and John connected with divine flow. They quieted themselves down, looked for vision, heard God’s voice, and wrote it down.

“I will stand at my watch and station myself on the ramparts; I will look to see what he will say to me, and what answer I am to give to this complaint. The LORD’s Answer… Then the LORD replied:‘Write down the revelation and make it plain on tablets so that a herald may run with it.’” – Habakkuk 2:1-2

How many of the four principles was Einstein following to help him connect with divine flow?

1) He was still (quieted down);
2) He was using vision (imagination & divine vision);
3) He was tuned to spontaneity (God’s voice);
4) He wrote it down (journaling).

So we see that Einstein used all four. I have discovered that people who will use all four of these principles in collective combination find that they are able to capture and release the divine flow of God within them on a continuous, ongoing basis. So, you see, Einstein was a modern day example of a man using the four keys which Habakkuk and John used to release divine creativity in the field of science.

You can connnect to the divine flow, too.

When you know what to do to connect to the divine flow of God, and you do these things, then your life is a channel of divine creativity. Your life begins to match the covenant promises of Deuteronomy 28:1-14, and begins to reflect the glory of Solomon’s kingdom, which was an outworking and fulfillment of these principles. It will cause non-believers, like the Queen of Sheba, to come and see the expressions of divine creativity which flow from your life. They, too, will be breathless, declaring that only God could do this (11 Chron. 9:1-8).

May you be a vessel through which divine creativity flows. May the world see the unfolding drama of God’s creativity displayed in their midst by the artists in the Church. May God be glorified in our midst.

Mark Virkler is with Christian Leadership University. CLU is a Christian University and Online Bible College offering Christian education including Christian counseling and Christian theology seminaries and offers certificates, undergrad, Masters, and Doctorates in the various Christian colleges of CLU.

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Motorola Theory ? A Great Messaging Device

Motorola Theory is a stylish messaging Smartphone, which offers thin and compact design, great QWERTY keyboard; better call quality, good display, Bluetooth, browsing, IM & email functionality. By using Motorola Theory you will get better option of talking and texting, and taking advantage of Boost Mobile’s low calling rates. The Theory is a good Smartphone for modern generation that response texting as second language with Bluetooth, QWERTY keyboard and 2.4 inch bright display touchscreen. Boost Mobile developed the messaging phone giving this year with launching Motorola Clutch +i475 with Theory. It looks like Clutch + i475 but does not have featured called push to talk but designed with 1.3 megapixel camera. It is well-mannered smartphone with affectionate QWERTY keyboard.

The features of Motorola Theory seemed designed like Clutch +i475, 0.5 inch broad, high 4.4 inches and wide length is just around 2.4 inches while round corners and soft touch made in back edge. The front edge is glossy dark gray, which gives an effective appearance to the handset. The Motorola Theory has 2.4 inch bright screen that allow users to use 262,000 colors with pixel resolution of 320 x 240, which is unquestionably clear, sharper  than the Clutch +1475’s 220 x 176 pixel resolution display. It lets user to adjust all essential menu like font menu size, banner text, backlight time,  brightness level, wallpaper and clock format based on their choice. Under the touchscreen you will notice a regular standard navigation array, which made in two pliable buttons, enthusiastic camera and back key with encircling closure with in between center Select key.

The Power/end buttons of Motorola Theory and send buttons are on either edge of array. It has QWERTY keyboard features, which is fairly cramped. The number keys are made on white color, the spacebar is quite roomy. Also the keyboard features speakerphone key. On the back edge of device the camera lens placed, while 2.5mm headphone jack and micro USB port on the left part of Theory. Motorola has added volume rocker button on the right edge of Theory. You will easily store 1000 phonebook entry, street address, email-numbers, instant message and webpage URL. According your needs you can arrange your contact group. The advanced point you will noticed in Motorola Theory is caller id for image, message alert tones and 16 polyphonic.

The core features on Motorola Theory consists of alarm clock, datebook, world clock, speakerphone, calculator, vibrate mode, notepad and many more. Also it has featured like Web browser, Bluetooth, voice commands and GPS with TeleNav. Being a standard messaging phone, it designed with text messaging and multimedia with lined conversation shore up, email and instant messaging. The email function support s Pop/IMAP, Yahoo accounts, Gmail, AOL and windows Live. The nice-looking 1.3 megapixel camera let you take image in four resolutions with four setting shutter tones with self timer, silent choice, up to 4x zoom, color effects, picture frames, white and brightness balance. The photo quality is not too good, and appears slight dark, small and blurry mainly in low light.

The additional normal feature of Motorola Theory are imap/pop3 email support via IM/email applications wireless webmail access to MSN, Yahoo and Gmail, Full QWERTY keyboard along with soft keys, 2.40 inch TFT screen, 320 x 240 pixel resolution, 262, colors, 1.3 megapixel camera, digital zoom, music player like AMR, WMA, MP4, MP3, AAC; callers group, rind id and picture id and many

Pravakar Das is an enthusiastic technical writer and reviewer, you can find more about discount mobile phones from his website including other latest T-mobile phones reviews and buying tips

The Contemporary Office Design Theory

The overall design of an office space greatly affects the mood and productivity of all those working in it. This is called office psychology where every element affects the general attitude of people inside an office space in Reston VA. The design and style are often a matter of personal perspective. However, people can never go wrong with sophisticated contemporary designs. The kind of business does not matter as long as the walls and element placement follows modern office design.


Today, the traditional style of offices which required individual spaces is no longer ideal. Contemporary office design theories argue for a concept of collaboration which aims to break the walls that limited and separated employees. The modern design of today’s offices focuses on sets of stations, allowing employees to interact with each other. This line of thought builds upon the concept of socialization to augment an employee’s critical thinking and productivity through intellectual discussions.


Moreover, the reception of contemporary office designs is characterized by bright, open and warm welcoming areas. The standard design of the reception area provides space for the company to display awards, on-going projects, and other important details. Modern offices also display abstract artworks or historical elements valuable to the company.


The company’s lobby is also one of the most critical areas in modern office design. Contemporary design boasts comfortable and spacious seating, substantial reading materials, and even refreshments.  A modern lobby displays sleek and sophisticated furnishings, and neat surfaces.


One of the most distinct characteristics of contemporary office design is the clusters of desks and storage called systems furniture. This feature saves companies construction costs while allowing efficiency in restructuring. Such a system also makes for flexibility with different sizes and shapes, allowing employees to talk over low partition walls.


Desks and storage systems hang from the walls providing employees easy access to files and supplies. While everyone are relatively more “open” compared to traditional design, contemporary office still provides the needed privacy for each employee. System furniture is not unique to contemporary design as it has existed for many years. Modern designs were adopted as technology advanced and made lighter colors and thinner walls available for company use. New materials such as plexiglass were also used to allow a more open feel in an office space in Ballston VA.


Lastly, the lighting of contemporary offices supports the green revolution. New office spaces are embedded with light sensors to monitor room activity.  If the sensors detect no activity, the lights in the specific area turn off, and vice versa when a person passes through the lights. For instance, an office space in Arlington VA employs modern energy efficient lighting techniques. Such offices utilize environment friendly bulbs like LEDs or Xenon for clear lights.

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Testing Theory of Insulation Resistance Tester

Insulation resistance tester is extensively utilized to test engine, motor, electric adapter, attached wires, digital items and also of electric equipment such as cables for control, signal, telecommunication and electricity. Insulation resistance tester is applied to illustrate the change of insulated resistant of electric machines for months and yrs. The insulated resistance can be with giant changes. That would illustrate the possible troubles. Therefore, we might require to rectify the insulation resistance tester from time to time with the ambition to make sure no change of the tester throughout the long-term utility.


Nearly all kinds of insulation resistance tester would applycccm of protecting the ends is to remove the possible stream leakage and optionally reduce the influence to the output resistant gadget to 0.

One of main difficulties to rectify the insulation resistance tester is to find the proper resistance. The 1st requirement should certainly be on adequate precision. And, the resistance level should be big enough to endure the high level of DC stream. Besides, there exists no universal standard for Megger machine manufacturers to apply specific sorts of resistant range. So, users may need to have all kinds of resistance levels. By understanding different kinds of insulation resistance tester goods, users can know different feature testing points of them.


Multifunctional electrical/electronic calibrator cannot be utilized to correct the insulation resistance tester due to the limited voltage they can only deal with. The best voltage is not over 20V. Also, the strategy for composite voltage would be excluded based on the restrain of design cost and size. The rectification of insulation resistance tester applies vertical high-voltage resistant matrix to provide over 500 thousand output resistant levels. In the rectifier of insulation resistance tester, there are 8 ranges of resistances. Each range can provide 4.5-digit stable output. It would be another challenge to collect proper high-voltage resistances and then integrate them into a device. The protector of insulation resistance tester can form a resistance multiplier to efficiently multiplie a known resistance.


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Satellite TV receiver systems theory


Digital Satellite TV has developed rapidly in recent years, the use of geostationary satellites to digital encoding of television signal transmission to the client as a form of radio and television. There are two main ways. One is the digital TV signal transmission to the cable end, and then converted to analog by a cable television station sent to the user’s home. This form has been popular in the world for many years. Another way is to transmit digital TV signals directly to the user’s home that is: Direct to Home (DTH) mode. U.S. Direct TV is the first application of this technology

Satellite TV Preview

Satellite television operating companies. Compared with the first approach, DTH satellite emission power mode, the antenna can be smaller, the average family can use. At the same time, can provide user authentication and encryption management to digital television, pay per view television (PPV), high-definition television and other types of advanced television services, without the middle part of restrictions. In addition, methods can also carry out a number of DTH television services other than digital information services, such as the INTERNET high speed downloads, interactive television.
DTH in the international arena there are two standards, the European standard DVB-S and U.S. standards DigiCipher. But increasingly in the global DVB standard widely used in the emerging U.S. DTH company Dish Network also uses the DVB standard.


A typical DTH system consists of six parts:

1) front-end system (dreambox 500)

Front-end system consists of video and audio compression encoders, multiplexers and other components. The main task is to front-end system for digital television signal encoding, the use of statistical multiplexing technology, in a limited frequency band satellite transponders to transmit more programs. DTH by MPEG-2 standard for video and audio signal compression, using dynamic statistical multiplexing technology, can upload a 27MHz transponder vote Chi? 0 sets of TV shows.

2) transmission and uplink system (Uplink)

Transmission and uplink systems, including front-to-uplink station communications equipment and uplink equipment. Transmission main IF transmission and digital baseband transmission two.

Receiver (18)

3) Satellite (Satellite)

DTH systems use high-power direct broadcast satellite or communications satellite. Due to technical and cost reasons, some DTH system uses high-power communications satellite, the United States and Canada adopt a more appropriate DTH company dedicated high-power direct broadcast satellite (DBS).

4) User Management System (SMS)

DTH user management system is the heart of the system, mainly the following functions: Xiaobian recommend

A. Registration and management of user information.
B. purchasing and packaging programs.
C. Development of program standards and user billing charges.
D. Market forecasts and marketing.

User management system mainly consists of user information and program information database management system and to answer user questions and provide a variety of customer service Call Center form.

5) The conditional access system (CA)

Conditional access system has two main functions:

A. The program data encryption.
B. of the program and authorize users.

DTH on the current international system of conditional access systems used are: U.S. NDS, Israel, Irdeto, France Via Access, Switzerland, Nagra Vision, etc.

U.S. companies and the use of Direct TV Direct TV Star Choice Canadian technology companies using NDS conditional access system; U.S. Dish Network (Echostar) and the use of Echostar’s technology companies in Canada to use Bell ExpressVu is the Nagra Vission conditional access system.

6) users receiving system (IRD)

DTH users receiving system consists of a small satellite dish antenna (Dish) and integrated receiver decoder (IRD) and smart card (Smart Card) form.
IRD is responsible for four main functions:

A. decoded program data stream, and output to a TV.
B. The use of smart card key (Key) to decrypt.
C. receive and process a variety of user commands.
D. Download and run the variety of applications.

DTH system, the IRD is not a simple hardware device, it also includes a large number of operating systems and application software. IRD is currently more successful operating system is Open TV. U.S. Dish Network has begun to gradually upgrade the user’s IRD to Open TV system.

Front-end system consists of video and audio compression encoders, multiplexers and other components. The main task is to front-end system for digital television signal encoding, the use of statistical multiplexing technology, in a limited frequency band satellite transponders to transmit more programs. DTH by MPEG-2 standard for video and audio signal compression, using dynamic statistical multiplexing technology, can upload a 27MHz transponder vote Chi? 0 sets of TV shows.

Term Paper: Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Herzberg classified the human needs into two factors which are

Hygiene or extrinsic factor
Motivators or intrinsic factors

The hygiene factors primarily comprise of the administration, supervision, working conditions, and salary, and if these needs are not satisfied the employee may become dissatisfied with the job. Similarly the second kind is that of the motivators that include recognition of their job, responsibility and growth. These needs are fulfilled by an individual’s work and performance at the job (Dawson, 1987).

After we have analyzed the most important theories of motivation it could be said that there is no fixed pattern from which a person can become motivated. It is often observed that professionals that are on the upper management of an organization are not much motivated by the extrinsic factors reason being they have made enough money, they have all the luxuries in the life and their basic needs are fulfilled so money is not a motivational factor for them. What motivates them is a challenging job, or a new venture, or some creative job where they can demonstrate their skills. This might not be the case for a mid level manager when his physiological and safety needs are fulfilled but the quality of life that he has in his mind is not yet achieved. This means that until that need is not fulfilled he would not move up to the other need (Kulkaa, 2005).

A survey was conducted in order to know that what motivated the employee most and the overall perception that was acquired was that it was cold hard cash that makes people come to work every morning.  Lots of surveys and studies have been conducted lately to investigate the factor which is most crucial for employee motivation and not surprisingly the finding of the survey showed that still there are majority of people who prefer money as motivational factor over other non monetary benefits. The reason why there is a high tendency of money as motivator is because of the high inflation and other economic situations where people are not much sure about their current job and want to make more and more money so as to secure their future. But still a proper balance should be maintained between the monetary benefits and non monetary benefits for the reason that you cannot motivate everyone with the same yardstick.  


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Forex trading: Elliott Wave theory explained

lliott wave theory describes how the financial markets behave. It is one of the best and least understood theories of technical analysis when it comes to forex trading. It was developed in 1920 by Ralph Nelson Elliott as a way of predicting the trends of financial markets. This theory is applied to any freely traded assets or goods like shares, gold, oil, currency etc..

In an effort to understand the market behaviour, Elliott started to observe the financial markets and their charts to understand the market behaviour. After through observation and analysis, he concluded that the markets undergo mass psychology swings and create a specific wave patterns in price movements. Each pattern has its own implication when it comes to position of the market in the past, present and future.

Elliott wave theory states that any financial market either forex or stock market will move in a series of swings such as 5 swings upward and 3 swings downward. It is not the end there is something that makes trading in financial market much more complicated. Otherwise it would be somewhere traders making a killing by catching the wave and ridding it to make money in the markets. Therefore, there is something more than that.

One most important thing that makes trading more difficult for most of the beginner financial market traders is the timing and with respect to this theory compared to other theories is that it does not put a time limit to cycle’s reactions and rebounds. In a mathematical theory, there are multiple waves within the waves which make it more complicated for any trader to catch the ride.

Elliott wave theory is based on standard rule of physics called every action is followed by a reaction. For example: if there is a drop in prices, people will buy, which will increases the demand in the market driving the prices up. The toughest task is predicting when those reactions will follow the actions that make the trade profitable.

As the Elliott wave theory is defined as series of five waves that move in one direction followed by three downward moves, therefore it is more important to interpret the waves in terms of market actions.

These waves can be interpreted on long term yearly basis and short term hourly market hour chart patterns. When describing the trends of the market with help of Elliott wave theory, the first 5 waves are called impulse waves and last 3 waves are called corrective waves.

In wave 1 the stock makes an initial move upwards. This is caused when few people all of a sudden felt that stock is available at cheaper price and it is a perfect time to buy.

In wave 2 the people who took the exposure in the stock feel that stock is over priced after certain rise in price, so book profits. This causes the stock to go down but will not touch the previous level before people start to buy it again.

In wave 3 the stock attracts the attention of mass public that causes the price to move higher and higher and cross the price mark created at the end of wave 1.

In wave 4 people again start to book profits considering it an expensive and waiting to buy on dips.

In wave 5, this is point where the stock is overpriced and starts shorting the stock which starts the corrective wave.

Corrective wave is one where many people expects the price to go up and make a come back but which is most unusual. At this movement it shows very insignificant moves.

Please note that this article is for educational purposes only and should not be considered financial advice.

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How to book DSA theory test appointment

Theory test appointments can be booked, and subject to three clear working days notice, be changed and cancelled using ouronline booking service or the telephone. You can also download an application form and apply by post.

Before you can take your theory test you will need to make sure you have a valid provisional driving licence. You can applyfor a provisional driving licence from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA). The application form (form D1) can be obtained from your local Post Office.

Once you have a valid provisional driving licence you can book your driving theory test. Waiting times vary from region to region, but the target is that 95 per cent of driving test candidates receives an appointment date within two weeks of their preferred date.

You will need to book the theory and practical test separately through the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) on:

Booking online:

To book a driving theory test online on DSA website: you will need:

1.A valid UK driving licence
2.A valid debit or credit card for payment.

Booking over phone:

You can book theory test over the phone using the numbers below, from 8.00 am to 4.00 pm except on Bank Holidays.
Theory test booking line – 0870 0101 372
Welsh language booking line – 0870 0100 372
Minicom booking line – 0870 0106 372
Fax booking line – 0870 0104 372
To book a theory test with an operator over the phone you will need:

1.A valid UK driving licence
2.A valid debit or credit card for payment (Visa, Mastercard, Delta, Visa Electron, Switch/Maestro and Solo cards are accepted)
Booking driving test by post:

To book theory test by post you will need an application form. Application forms are available online or on request from the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) booking line. Payment can be made by cheque or postal order, but cash payments are not accepted. Application forms for the theory test should be sent to the address shown on the form. The address on these forms is Driver and Vehicle Agency, Booking Department, PO Box 381, Manchester, M50 3UW

Cancelling or rescheduling a test:

You can reschedule or cancel a test over the phone via the booking line or you can do it online. Providing you give DSA three clear working days notice you can:

Move or change your appointment
Cancel your appointment
Have a full refund of test fee provides study material like Books, DVD’s and CD’s for Driving Test, Theory Test, Hazard perception Test, Pass Test and Practical test at discount price.

Management Accounting Theory of Cost Behavior

Management accounting contains a number of decision-making tools that require the conversion of all operating costs and expenses into fixed and variable components. The responsibility for providing this cost behavior information falls squarely upon the shoulders of the management accountant. The conversion of ordinary financial data as typically found in the general ledger accounts requires that the management accountant have a thorough understanding of cost behavior theory.  The identification and measurement of fixed and variable costs is somewhat complicated by the fact that some costs are fixed or variable at the discretion of management, while other costs are not.

Furthermore, for those expenditures that are inherently variable, management has the ability, within limits, to control the magnitude of the variable cost factors. In order to exercise this control, management also needs a solid understanding of the nature of cost behavior. In management accounting, the classification and measurement of fixed and variable cost is based on a body of knowledge that involves a number of assumptions. In many cases, the usefulness of fixed and variable cost data depends on the validity of these assumptions. In order to avoid poor operating results and faulty decision making that is likely to occur when false cost assumptions are made, the ability to recognize and measure cost behavior is essential.

The most volatile variable in any business is volume; that is, units produced or units sold. A change in volume has an immediate impact on variable costs. Variable costs are those costs that increase or decrease with corresponding changes in volume. However, the exact relationship between total variable cost and volume in practice is not always easy to describe or measure. Therefore, in both management accounting and economic theory, the relationship between volume and total variable cost is often determined by assumption.  An important point that needs understanding is that some costs are not inherently fixed or variable but become one or the other by management exercising its decision-making powers. Management has the discretionary power to make some costs either variable or fixed. For example, sales people compensation can be either fixed or variable.

If management decides to reward sales people on the basis of a commission, then sales people’s compensation is variable. If the basis for rewarding sales effort is a salary, then sales people’s compensation is a fixed expense. If factory workers are paid a wage rate, then factory workers’ compensation is variable. The decision to pay workers a salary would make the factory labor compensation a fixed cost in the short- run.  In management accounting, the relationship between activity and total variable cost is assumed to be linear. If the cost per unit of output sharply changes outside of this range of activity, then the use of a constant average cost per unit values should be avoided.

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Should ERP be implemented by Big Bang theory

The answer to this question is case specific. It will be difficult to generalize the theory for it. For big organizations Big Bang theory is the best choice. Mostly decision on this depends on the readiness audit result, available strength of consulting human power – both internal and external – relevance of ERP at various units, timeframe, and the budget.

The drawback of the big bang implementation approach is that the project is often rushed. On this process sometimes details are overlooked, and sudden changes to business processes may affect negatively. Many times the projects that implement an overly aggressive big bang approach are more risky and result in less satisfaction with the system’s abilities to meet important business requirements.

Therefore it is advisable to go for the key modules such as sales order processing, material planning including purchasing and factory management at the first stage. Modules such as human resources, document management, maintenance and even financials can be implemented later. If there is more than one business unit involved it is best to implement in a relatively easy but not untypical unit first then roll out the implementation to the other units.

The answer to this question is case specific. It will be difficult to generalize the theory for it. For big organizations Big Bang theory is the best choice. Mostly decision on this depends on the readiness audit result, available strength of consulting human power – both internal and external – relevance of ERP at various units, timeframe, and the budget.

The drawback of the big bang implementation approach is that the project is often rushed. On this process sometimes details are overlooked, and sudden changes to business processes may affect negatively. Many times the projects that implement an overly aggressive big bang approach are more risky and result in less satisfaction with the system’s abilities to meet important business requirements.

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