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Category : Information Theory

The Theory of Broadband

Broadband is nothing but a telecommunications signal which has a broader bandwidth. It was originated as an application of radio engineering but the word was popularized by the organization known as Media One. It started as a promotion in the year 1996 with the notion to offer high speed data transfer within a network of connected computers. Nowadays broadband has become an essential part of our day to day life.

This telecommunication signals are use d through telephone analog systems. These analog systems are nothing but our telephone line which communicates through analog waves. As the computer understands and read digital signals so in a broadband a machine is employed converts analog signals into digital and vice versa. This machine is known as modem. A broad bandwidth connection is not possible without a modem and a router.

Router is nothing but a machine which redirects the specific signals to specific networks. A bandwidth connection implies a server and a client prodigy. Bandwidth requires three elements without which it cannot take place. These elements are a telephone line, a modem, and a computer. Other than the ISP provider needs servers and router to redirect the communication services to the client which is nothing but the person using the bandwidth.

This telecommunication technology has become a breakthrough in communication values which has amplified the spectrum of media. This has allowed us to transfer huge amount of data within no time and has opened no avenues over the internet. Data sharing portals such as YouTube wouldn’t be possible without broader bandwidth.

YouTube hosts video in its database and it is not possible to buffer those without narrow bandwidth. Without high level of broadband services community portals such as face book and MySpace would not be present over the internet. This has surely been a revolutionary achievement in the field of IT and in the field of communication.

Broandband is the most popular internet technology available today. Click here to know more about Broandband

Mike Bordon is a renowned SEO professional and author of many articles and e-books. Presently he is working as the editor of spotwriters. He is currently providing writing service for many SEO firms.


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The Two Nation Theory

At last the Indian National Congress had to accept the two nation theory. Who accepted it first or why he did so, did not matter. The country was divided based on the theory that the Hindus and the Muslims constituted two different nations, while nobody cared to ask the question during the days of the Mughal rule or earlier. Even Mohammed Ali Jinnah did not relish the idea when it was first mooted by the Ali brothers. Nobody had then expected that it would gain acceptance and from the basis for the country’s division. People had lived for hundreds of years-both the Hindus and the Muslims – side by side, breathing the same air, drinking the same water, living here and dying here. Not that there was perfect cordiality all the time. A number of Muslim invaders slaughtered the Buddhist and the Hindus alike, pulled down their places of worship, plundered their wealth, and persecuted them mercilessly. Their rulers taxed them heavily and forced them to live a life of constant fear and suffering. But still, the Hindus put on a brave demeanor and put up with all the hardships courageously and lived even though a few embraced Islam when they were threatened to choose between death and Islam. The Muslims invariably felt that their destinies were tied with that of the land, though they robbed some of the Hindus of their last penny, reducing them to the status of ‘hewers of wood’ and ‘drawers of water’ and the idea of two nations had never entered into their minds.

When Zinnah succumbed to the idea, Gandhiji tried to win him back to his side with the offer of Prime Minister ship of free India. He said if Zinnah accepted to head the interim government Pandit Nehru would be his deputy. Zinnah was not to be baited, if it was bait, He had already turned towards the west and the creation of anew nation completely occupied his mind and heart.

And so was Pakistan born. But India had won its freedom. Never mind if Punjab and Bengal were divided. We had our midnight freedom. Not a drop of blood was shed. The lion had shaken to the core at the sight of the magic wand. We simply held it before its eyes. This was only a dream. It did not last long. The country plunged into a blood bath that no where had a parallel. Thousands were butchered; millions ran for life, leaving everything behind, leaving the land that was suffused with the breath of their fathers and forefathers, the land they had loved so dearly.

That was not all. A number of Muslims from many parts of the land left for the newly born country which perhaps looked like a paradise on earth. India did not object to the mass migration. Any one was free to go or come. But before long these pilgrims came back. The land that had held no attraction a few days ago did not object to their transmigration.

Now the question is did any Hindu who had come from Pakistan to India, go back to Pakistan disillusioned? Not that it maters much. But why didn’t they go? Did they really accept the two nation theory? It was thrust on them and so they had to accept it out of sheer compulsion.

The Nawabs of Nizam and Jhunaghad did not think that they had a duty to respect the will of their subjects. They felt that as rulers they could let their free will shape the course of history. But the story of Kashmir was different. The Hindus King had no choice before him. When his kingdom was attacked by the so called tribal, he knew fully well who was really behind the thrust. Even then Pandit Nehru did not concede to the request of the Kashmir Prime Minister until Sheik Abdullah who Nehru thought was the real representative of the Muslim majority, endorsed the Maharajah’s proposal. When subsequently elections were held, the Abdullah government was not voted down, which though not directly, amounted that the Muslims of Kashmir did not subscribe to the two nation theory. If Pakistan without attacking Kashmir, had allowed the Maharaja or his people to express their free will whatever course it might have taken, the situation would taken been different.

Now the upsurge in Kashmir with its Pakistani manipulations, tries to move the clock back to the eve of partition. To brush it aside as a trouble created by a few hundreds of Pakistani trained militants does not sound very convincing. If it was that simple and that the militants did not sound very convincing. If it was that simple and that the militants did not have a popular base in at least a few areas in the valley why were they not liquidated yet? If there was no sufficient justification, why did the government of India give Kashmir’s a special status?

Things have gone too far. The present situation is distressing now that the popular government was dismissed. For more than two years, the gun has been in fully play, with a great degree of freedom. But the voices are not silenced, firing and counter firing continue. Peace is not near in sight. It is time to denounce meaningless prestige and bring all the people connected to a conference table and chalk out a way out. As long as India talks about Pakistani intransigence it will go on harping on the UN resolutions. There are people all around ready to nod approvingly at what Pakistan does.

The Muslims living in other parts of India too have great responsibility. No use of remaining as silent spectators. They have to stand up and denounce secessionist tendencies that are sweeping across the valley like a whirl wind. They should remember that the government and the people in general are ready to treat them with love and respect and that the Hindus who never subscribed to the two nation theory treat the Muslims only a religious minority like the Christians or the Buddhists. It was India that had banished Satanic Verses long before Pakistan and many Muslim nations did. The Hindus too have a part to play. They should not forget that theirs is a society that has seen God in every living being, a society that has not only preached but also practiced religious tolerance they should assure their Muslim brethren that they want to end their wranglings over Mandir – Masjid issues.

If India is a symbol of secularism, Kashmir is a symbol within a symbol. While India is that of Hindu brand, Kashmir should be its complementary part of Muslim brand. And the two should together declare that they can live together in spite of divergences with mutual respect and understanding.

Sam J Thomas is a freelance writer and has written content for several web & print media projects. He is currently preparing content for Kerala House Boat Package -based tourism website and

Social Marketing Theory

Social marketing theory is really quite simple. All these marketing agencies and advertisers are trying to tell you that it’s big job and it costs lots and lots of money. The truth of the matter is that social marketing is about making friends. As simple as that.

What happens when you over complicate social marketing is you start to make people mad. Before long they’ll unfollow you or unfriend you because you doing nothing but try to sell to them. If you’re looking for mass subscriptions, people blasts, mass friend finding, or anything other than opt in e-mail marketing, you’re approaching social media the wrong way.

The idea behind social marketing is really threefold:

Find people like you with same interests
Form relationships with those people
Treat everyone with respect

Now notice where marketing comes in to that equation? It doesn’t.

Social marketing theory is about being a better friend and forming better relationships than anyone else. What happens when you form good relationships is those people buy from you, refer you, and send all of their friends to do business with you.

In fact, I like to think of social media as the world’s simplest opt-in service. Rather than double opt-in and open up e-mail clients, all people have to do is press one button to follow you or send a friend request. Now, they’ve entered your thought stream. They can see everything that you post to the rest of your fans.

So for everybody out there trying to build an e-mail marketing list, realize that social media is really just the first step. If they start to follow you and realize you’re an expert, then they’re going to start to pay attention. Now I’m not saying you can never market is people in social media, but do it sparingly. The ratio should be about 5 to 1. Five non-marketing messages to one marketing message.

Really social marketing theory is that simple. Be a good friend, treat people well, be interested, and gain a following like no other (except maybe Tony Robbins).

Jason Drohn is a social media optimization expert who specializes in helping people build their brands online, whether that be for their business or for professional development. Learn more about social marketing theory, or visit his site at

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The wage fund theory

The wage fund theory combining capital and wages was first propounded by Adam Smith and J S Mill gave the final shape for the theory. According to the theory, the part of the capital is used to support the working population and this capital or fund set part is the deciding factor for the rates related to wages.

The wage fund theory has been explained in detail in “Principles of Political Economy” authored by J S Mill. According to the theory, “Wages depend upon the demand and supply of labor, as it is often expressed, on the proportion to population and capital. By population means, the number of the laboring class or rather of those who work for hire and by capital, circulating capital and not even the whole of that, but the part which is expended on the direct purchase of the labor”

According to this theory, at any given time, a certain wage fund is available; i.e. a determinate amount of capital destined for the payment of labor. There is similarly a determinate number of laborers who must work, whatever be the wages. If the laborers want to get more, there is no alternative except to reduce their number so that each might get a larger share of the wage fund which is fixed.

Out of their annual produce, the producers set apart a wage fund after appropriating the amounts due on rent, interest and profit. This fund becomes the working capital in the next period and wages are paid out of this fund. Hence, it has come to be called as the wage fund. The wages of labor are determined strictly on the basis of the formula:

The wages rate = wage fund/number of laborers

The wage fund thus is constituted by the demand for labor and the working population and the supply of labor. According to the rule of competition, the fund is distributed among the workers. The increase in wages depend on the following factors namely; either the number of workers should be reduced or there should be an increase in the fund allocated for distribution of wages. Increase in the wage fund is not under the control of labor.
It is also advocated by the wage fund theory, that growth in population counteracts the rise in wages. According to the economists, once the trade unions demand increase in wages and the wages get increased in one country, it is bound to fall in another country since the wage fund is always fixed.

Criticism of the theory:
This theory does not explain the principle behind creating wage fund; however, it depends on the arbitrary will of the producer and it gives a high degree of arbitration and makes it illogical.

Even though it is admitted that the payment of wages is available from the working capital of the country, there is no justification as to why it should be made available from the wage fund created by producers during the previous period.

The theory ignores the efficiency of labor and the consequent difference in wages in the practical life. In case the labor is more productive, it is entitled to a higher wage;
The theory has completely ignored the way in which the wage fund is distributed and it has also ignored the influence of trade unions in bargaining.

This article has been compiled by Classof1, a leading online Homework-Help provider.

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Factor Proportions Theory

Factor Proportions Theory or Heckschar and Ohlin Model

The theory was compounded by two Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin.  The theory explains that a country should produce and export a commodity that primarily involves a factor of production abundantly available in the country.  For example, country ‘A’ has large population and large labour resources. Thus it will be able to produce the goods at a lower cost using a labour intensive mode of production. Country ‘B’ has abundance of capital but is short of labour resources and will specialize in goods that involve a capital intensive mode of production.  After the trade, both the countries will have two types of goods at the lest cost.  Mr. Samuelson went a few steps ahead saying that in this way the prices of factors of production tend to equalize among different countries.  Leontief found in his empirical study that the USA being the capital abundant economy, exported labour intensive goods.  But he was of this view that such possibilities could not be ruled out because the USA was able to produce labour intensive goods in a capital intensive fashion.


Neo-Factor proportion Theory

Extending Leontief’s view, some of the economist emphasis on the point that it is not only the abundance of a particular factor, but also the quality of that factor of production that influences the pattern of international trade. The quality is so important in their view that they analysis the trade theory in a three-factor framework :

(a)   Human capital :  It is the result of better education and training.  Human capital should be treated as a factor input like physical labour and capital.  A country with human capital maintains an edge over other countries with regards to the export of commodities produces with the help of improved human capital.

(b)   Skill Intensity :  The skill intensity hypothesis is similar to human capital hypothesis as both of them explain the capital embodied in human beings.  It is only empirical specification that differs.

(c)   Economies of Scale :  It explains that with rising output, unit cost decreases.  The producers achieve internal economies of scales. A country with large production possesses an edge over other countries with regards to export.  However, a small country can reap such advantages if it produces exportable in large quantities.

 National Competitive Advantage 

The theory is compounded by Porter.  This theory explains that countries seek to improve their national competitiveness by developing successful industries.  The success of targeted industries depends upon a host of factors that are termed the diamond of national advantage.  The factors are :

(a)   Factor Conditions :  It show how far the factors of production in a country can be utilised successfully in a particular industry.  This concept goes beyond the factor proportion theory and explains that an availability of the factor of production per se is not important, rather their contribution to the creation and upgradation of products is crucial for competitive advantages.

(b)   Demand Condition :  The demand for the product must be present in the domestic market from the very beginning of production.  Porter is of view that it is not merely size of the market that is important, but it is intensity and sophistication of demand that is significant for competitive advantage.

(c)   Related and Supported Industries :  The firm operating along with its competitors as well as its complementary firms gathers benefit through a close working relationship in form of competition or backward and forward linkage.


(d)   Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry :  The firm’s own strategy helps in augmenting export.  There is no fixed rule regarding the adoption of a particular strategy.  It depends on the numbers of factors present in the home country or the importing country.

Limitations :   There are various criticism put forth against Porter’s theory :

(a)   There are cases when absence of any factors embodied in Porters diamond does not affect the competitive advantage.  For example, when a firm is exporting its entire output, the intensity of demand at home does not matter.

(b)   If the domestic supplier of input is not available, the backward linkage will be meaningless. 

(c)   Porter’s theory is based on empirical findings covering 10 countries and four industries.  A majority of countries in the sample have different economic background and don’t necessarily support the findings.

 (d) Availability of natural resources, according to Porter are not the only conditions for attaining competitive advantage. And there must be other factors too for it.  But in 1985, some Canadian industries emerged on the global map only on the basis of natural resources.

(e)   Porter feels that sizable domestic demand must be present for attaining competitive advantage. But there are industries that have flourished because of demand from foreign sales.


Summary: Nevertheless these limitations do not undermine the significance of Porter’s theory.

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Theory of Probability

Probability, the formal term for the concept of ‘chance’, is an integral part of our life and our conversations. We often discuss matters such as whether a new baby would be a boy or a girl, whether there will be a good monsoon this year; whether a student will get admission to a MBA program me, etc. During such conversations, normally, we do not attempt to measure the degree of chance. However, sometimes, we do mention. “1 am 90%, 95% or 99% certain” about a particular aspect, if someone were to counter why not 95.5%— well there would be any answer. A person makes a quantitative statement just to emphasise a point. It is not that one measures and then makes the statement of the above type. That is how, sometimes, one makes a statement, “I am 100% certain or sometimes, even 101% certain? However, one thing is agreed by every one that if there were a measure of chance, the measure would vary from zero (impossible) to one (certain). From time immemorial, human beings have been endeavoring to develop professional skills to enable them to predict the likelihood of various types of events.  Two persons (whose names have been lost in the sands of time, so let us call them 4A* and 4B*), were playing a match of tennis. Both of them put SI000 each at stake on the understanding that whoever wins the match would take the total amount of $ 2,000.

As is well known in tennis, usually the best of 5 sets is the winner i.e. whoever is the first to win three sets is the winner, and there is no draw in a set—the set being played till one player wins the set. Thus the total number of sets that could be played is 3, 4 or 5. Now, it so happened that on the day when ‘A’ and *B’ started playing the match, they could play only 3 sets—out of which A won 2 and B won 1. Somehow, they were not in a position to continue the match further, because A had to go to some other place. Now the problem arose as to how to divide the total stake money of $ 2,000.  Everyone agreed that ‘A* should get more than ‘B* but exactly how much was the issue. ‘A’ argued that, he should get two-thirds of the amount as he had won two out of three sets but ‘B’ did not agree saying that if the match could be continued, he would win both the remaining matches, and thus get the entire amount.

However, instead of arguing over the issue, they approached their common friend who happened to be a mathematician. They thought that he would be able to measure their chances of winning the match if the game was continued further, and then the total amount could be divided in that ratio. Even he could not resolve the issue, as till that time there was no formal method for measuring the chance factor. That mathematician approached his mathematician friends and the resulting research triggered the development of the theory of Probability.

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Language in theory

Language refers to human capacity to acquire and make use of systems of communication to pass ideas from one party of the communication to the other.  The faculty of human language is thought to be very different and complex from languages of other species due to the fact that it is based on a set of rules regarding the use of symbols and thus forming a limited number of possible utterances from a wide variety of elements.  Theories have been developed to clarify the complexity of language and explain how elements in language can be acquired and utilized to elicit meaningful system of communication.  The essay will describe language as is depicted by some of the most prominent theories of language developed during the classical and the modern age (Marga 2004:322).

Plato’s philosophy of language is one of the most acknowledged classical theories on language.  However, scholars in the current world curse his theory of ideas as mere mythology.  However, it is worth noting that Plato’s theory of language is not only philosophically neutral but also astonishingly up to date (Buhler 2000:217).  It may not be surprising to find some anticipations of language discussed today in the theory despite the fact that it is among the earliest account of investigations on the subject. The study of the Cratylus offers ideas on the naturalistic-mimetic theory of Plato as contrasted to the conventionalist understanding of language.  In Plato’s philosophy, problems in aesthetics, epistemology and metaphysics have their basis on the philosopher’s reaction to language. He fails to take a systematic position towards language by mingling the conventional with the natural and the human with the divine (Hughes 2004:36).

Regarding the theory of forms, Crytylus cautiously investigates the origin, nature and use of words in language.  According to Plato, assignment of names to objects is arbitrary and does not follow any sequence. He argued that any object may be assigned any name and existing names may be replaced with others without any loss. Generally, Plato’s philosophy of language indicates that there is no mandatory procedure of naming and objects are assigned names as per the will of the individual involved (Hughes 2004:36).  In addition, Plato illustrates that there is no need for an individual and the public to agree on what name to be assigned to any object. According to him, any person is at liberty to assign any name to any object regardless of the opinion of the public. He argues that it is very legitimate for a person to call small what the society calls large and is also very okay for an individual to call a horse a man or a man to be called a horse.

Plato’s philosophy of language is greatly criticized by the Socrates, though Plato in his dialogues warns that an allowance has to be provided to limit the detrimental effects of the characters of the Socrates in understanding the theory of language. Plato ridicules Socrates by arguing that his theory of language can only be understood in a manner consistent with his own ignorance profession and therefore he knows nothing on language. Despite the ridicule, Socrates argues that there is a natural and inherent appropriateness of names and the objects they are assigned to (Hughes 2004:36).  The Socrates illustrates their ideas through his assertion that objects come in to existence with their names attached to them as the skin clings to an animal. The Socrates criticize Plato’s philosophy of language by their argument that names have likeness to their bearers as opposed to the Plato’s idea on language that any name can be given to any object (Marga 2004:322).

John Locke has also made a significant attempt to analyze the origin, nature and the use of language as system of communication.  Locke’s discussion on language is generally based on signification, his central notion on linguistics. According to john Locke, signification in the theory of language is not only applicable to the words making up the language but also in the ideas of the language.  An analysis of Lockean signification leads to Locke’s counter-intuitive claim that words signify ideas (Buhler 2000:217). Linguistic thesis of the theory of language proposed by John Locke in his theory of language is that words in their immediate ore primary signification stands for the ideas in the mind of the individual who makes use of them.  Thus, Locke depicts words as a sensible mark of ideas and the ideas form proper and intermediate signification of the words.

Effective interpretation of Locke’s claims on words and ideas can only be achieved after the intention of “signification”, as is used by john Locke is understood.  The meaning of the word has triggered a fierce debate leading to various interpretations of word ranging from reference and sense to medieval understanding of signification which is to make something known to the intellect.  However, signification in the Locke’s theory of language can generally be explained by a statement illustrating the terms total denotation. In his argument, Locke defended his claim that concepts are signified by asserting that things are signified by means of concepts and the means must also be signified.  Thus, signification in the theory encompasses things like making known, revealing, expressing and also involves some significant aspects of sense and reference (Buhler 2000:217).

However, scholars argue that there is something wrong with the reasoning of John Locke; in fact, they argue that the reasoning of Locke on the signification of words is fallacious.  The main question of debate here is that, if ideas are the condition for meaningful use of words, it should thus not follow that ideas themselves are what is to be signified.  The fallacy of Locke’s theory of language is derived from the fact that, if character X is the condition for signification, then it is not logical to argue that X is what is signified.  Kretzmann’s statement reinforces the claim that a condition for signification can not be what is actually signified.  In the statement, Krietzmann argues that what is to be ruled out in Locke’s theory of language is that words signify ideas and other things like extra-mental objects.  However, Kretzmann in his statement assumes that a word can only signify a single thing at a time though the assumption is questionable.  Another philosopher against Locke’s theory of language is Arshworth who criticizes the theory by arguing that the move from the premise that ideas are the condition for meaningful use of language to the argument that ideas make up what is signified remains unjustified.


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Communication Theory For Landlords – Are Your Tenants Even Understanding You?

As landlords, one of our greatest tools is communication. Our words, our expressions, our tone, our gestures, and even our posture convey a great deal of information to the residents of our properties. We often inadvertently create misunderstandings, many of which go unrecognized.

Let’s use the following example of a simple misunderstanding as a starting point to explore some of the fundamentals of communication:

I was working at a property and we had been spending the last few days trimming excess brush from trees and bushes throughout the site. On this particular day, we were using a truck to pick up the piles of brush and haul them to the dump. I was working with a staff person who had not been closely involved in this project. I pulled the truck up near the garage and asked her to go get the brush that was located nearby and put it in the truck. I may have waved vaguely over in the direction I was referring to, I don’t remember exactly. I went to do something else and then came back to see if she was done. When I got back to the truck she was holding a large push broom and the pile of brush was still where I had left it. Confused, I asked her why she had not gotten the brush and she looked at me with an equally confused expression and said she had. It was only then that I realized the broom she was holding did in fact look like a large brush and she had gotten it from the garage which was in the direction I had waved towards. We both had a good laugh about our misunderstanding before we continued on our way.

Luckily the above mis-communication was harmless and it was fairly simple to explain. Let’s take a moment, however, to explore why it took place.

There are three elements of communication that took place in this situation-the ambiguity of language, different assumptions, and different communication styles. In this case, the word “brush” had two meanings. It could have been referring to a pile of branches on the ground or a broom with a brush-like appearance. The word itself is ambiguous. Many words that we use everyday fall into this category-“soon”, “a few”, “clean”, and “quickly”-all mean different things to different people. If you tell a tenant he can fix his car in the parking lot provided it only takes a few days, he may think this means three or four, when you were really meaning two.

Again, referring to the above example, I assumed that my co-worker would know what I meant when I said “the brush over there” because I had spent the last few days cutting and picking up branches. Because this was a new task for her, she did not share my assumptions about the meaning of brush. We frequently make assumptions in our communication with tenants. We assume that they can hear us, that they understand what we mean, and if they don’t that they will ask questions. We think to ourselves: “If what I am saying makes sense to me, it must make sense to them as well.” What we fail to realize, however, is that our communication comes out of our own particular constructs that exist only in our heads. In this example, there was a misunderstanding between co-workers who shared the same work environment, were the same gender, and were similar ages. Think of all the increased potentials for misunderstandings between landlords and tenants of different genders, ages, occupations, and educational backgrounds.

Another important element in communication is communication style. In the above example, the communication style I used was quite vague. I did not specifically point to the pile or clarify with her that she knew what I meant. I used a rather indirect approach, when it might have been more appropriate to be specific in my communication. Many of us use a wide range of communication styles depending on the situation, our mood, our personalities, and the other people involved. When it comes to understanding, the style in which information is presented can be as important as the content of the message. Anyone who has tried to read an insurance policy knows that even the simplest idea can be made complicated just by altering the style of presentation.

The ambiguity of language, assumptions, and communication styles are a few of the key elements of communication that will be important for you to understand as a landlord. Because we all too often assume that other people understand what we mean when we communicate with them, we frequently attribute conflicts to other causes rather than to failed communication. Instead of thinking “He or she may not have understood what I said,” we think “He is being difficult,” or “She must be mad at me,” or “He is always trying to get out of paying rent on time.”

Taking the time to carefully choose your words and presentation will go a long way in easing your communication with your tenants. Also, don’t hesitate to ask them to paraphrase back to you what they heard. That way you can check immediately to see if they understood your point. Remember, it is in your best interest to learn to communicate in a way that your tenants can understand.

Jessica Glenn began investing in real estate in the Spokane, Washington area in the fall of 2004. Within three years, she had acquired a portfolio of 79 units, all of which she still manages herself. The Landlord School was founded by Jessica Glenn. It is intended to be a resource for anyone interested in learning about managing their own residential real estate. Specifically it is designed for:

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Modern Portfolio Theory

Modern Portfolio Theory


There are two explanations which preserve the integrity of earlier and more theoretical discussions of risk and return. First, as was explained in the last article, according to modern portfolio theory, the risk premium of an individual asset is not measured by its own variability considered in isolation but rather by the contribution which it makes to the variability or riskiness of a diversified portfolio to which it is added. An individual stock with very great variability would be expected to have a rate of return not much greater than that of bonds of high quality if the returns on the stock were not highly correlated with returns on the market as a whole and it therefore did not add much to the riskiness of a diversified portfolio. In fact, a common stock whose returns were not correlated at all with returns on the market would be expected to have returns equal to those on a riskless asset.

It is plausible to assert that stocks of the lowest quality or with the greatest historic variability have returns which are less highly correlated with the market than stocks of higher quality and less historic variability. The stocks of the highest quality are often stocks of very large and widely diversified corporations—stocks such as American Telephone, General Electric, General Foods, Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) and so on. These great corporations are often deemed to be “blue chips” or of “investment grade,” the implication being that they are of high quality and have rates of return which can be predicted with greater confidence than can those of stocks of lesser quality. Since each of these corporations is very large, and since the profitability of each depends upon levels of demand in almost all parts of the country and in many different industries, it is not surprising that rates of return on these stocks are highly correlated with movements in the general economy and in the market as a whole.

By contrast, stocks of the lowest quality or with the greatest variability are often stocks of relatively small and immature companies whose profitability depends to a greater degree upon things other than the great tides in the movement of the general economy and the general market. It is easy to think of exceptions, but the generalization seems valid. If that is so, the stocks of lowest quality and with greatest historic variability may well have returns that are not highly correlated with the market and which consequently do not contribute as much to the riskiness of diversified portfolios as might be surmised on the basis of their total variability. This explanation amounts to saying that historic variability does not determine the risk premium of an individual asset, and that the deficiency in the measure has important consequences for the stocks with the greatest variability.


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PPC Theory

PPC Advertising for greatest Web Promotion

Engaging in pay-per-click (PPC) advertising has its own payback and drawbacks. You can view extra details here But what right is PPC advertising and what it can do to your custom?

Business today is liability different kinds of graveness trial when it comes to advertising their goods and amenities. This is because of high tariff of insertion ads on lettering and on television. But there is a busily upward accost that businessmen can develop to produce their amenities quicker to the people and that is through Internet Marketing.

One tool that is causing internet marketing popularity is PPC advertising. This is a practice worn in hunt engine marketing that requires one to pay a fee every time superstar clicks an ad on your website. regularly this position is done through a command treat. If you are a top bidder for your keywords/phrases, you are constant to be on the number one recognize on all hunt engines. Just be constant of the effectiveness of your ad item to get the most number of clicks you basic for your custom.

Here are the payback of PPC advertising are:

1.?You basic not be a genius in mainframe and technology to be able to run this ad crusade.
2.?Immediate fallout are seen after a few being.
3.?No basic to make a website conform to the SEO policy.
4.?Nothing to drop even if you do not top the pages of different hunt engines. You can still forever elect PPC advertising.
5.?You can make use any hunt engine existing.
6.?You can letters in any keyword you like.

Cons of PPC advertising includes:

1.?Fixed payments every month to the hunt engine you elect.
2.?Pay for apiece click normal by your website. At epoch, visitors are just competitors or people singing mischief on hunt engines. This hassle wastes money you put in to this advertising.
3.?Inability to pay for the fees following month would mean ejection of your website on the rewarded listings.
4.?This advertising can solely be worn temporarily because it is hard to market in the long run.
5.?Pay-per-click pricing can be costly for long periods of time, hence, this should be crashed after an ad crusade.

But how right PPC advertising can spread transfer, leads and sales?

PRE-QUALIFIED transfer. All visitors of your website are already considered as a practiced consumer or buyer of your invention. PPC advertising leads your customers to you for a slighter charge.

INSTANT EXPOSURE, close PROFITS. PPC hunt engines allow you to get your beloved fallout busily. They will have your website live inside just a few hours which means close spread in mart.

CONSISTENT TOP LISTINGS. This is to get your website on top of the sponsored hunt fallout for open. You just have to elect the keywords connected to your spot and custom and place them inside your web pages. After this, you are done.

PPC advertising enables advertisers to restrain their advertising campaigns. Advertisers have effectively embattled their listeners and set their own assess per click. PPC advertising networks offer the platform to isolate the beloved listeners by geographic locale, issue and pushiness.? These networks have a tilt of websites of the publishers wherein the ads will be located.

Tools are provided by the networks to stop how the pay per click reduce is operating for a certain advertiser. If its still competitive, would it be even planned amid the rewarded hunt lists or does it breed sales? Of course, if the advertiser made the chief bid, the better odds the ad will be seen in the hunt engine. These networks too offer protection for the advertisers onto click fraud. This advertising set-up allows advertisers to set a daily resources for his ads, thereby, fewer payments for unnecessary clicks. Advertiser will never go over his resources.?

In PPC advertising, what are important are the keywords and phrases. You have to choose at slightest ten “very specific” keywords that would give you the best transfer in the hunt. Then, write the ad creatively but straightforward. Tell the candor regarding your invention or overhaul and do not lie. Good thing if your invention or overhaul will not disappoint those that are relying on your ad’s insinuate – but what if it did otherwise? Important too is the clarity of the ad. Do not use very nebulous languages. contain important minutiae like the assess.

You should also recall to resources your bids. Do not go overbidding because you will solely drop your money and do not go so low that your ads will never get the gamble to show up. stop your profit onto your payments. If you see no increase then most probable you have to slump your ad crusade.
More and more advertisers have been with PPC advertising and it will prolong to grow closer than any online advertising techniques. From revenues of $ 2.6 billion in 2004 to $ 5.5 billion in 2009, charge per click will dramatically go up as well from $ 0.29 to $ 0.36.

PPC advertising is new in online marketing and it is departing to prolong in the being to come. For advertisers, this means spread revenues using less advertising expenses, savings, more sales, good restore of investment (ROI) and valuable ad campaigns in the being to come.????????












Ayesha Hamilton contributes articles for Pay Per Click Advertising Services. You can discover more details here